Pathology is that branch of medicine concerned with all aspects of
laboratory investigation in health and disease. The discipline
incorporates both morphological and non-morphological diagnostic
techniques in the areas of Anatomic Pathology, Medical Biochemistry,
Medical Microbiology, Hematopathology, and Transfusion Medicine.
OBJECTIVES:On completion of the education program, the
residents will be competent to function as consultants in General
Pathology and medical laboratory directors. This will require
acquisition of a sufficient level of skill in the separate disciplines
of Anatomic Pathology, Medical Biochemistry, Medical Microbiology,
Hematopathology and Transfusion Medicine to serve as a consultant within
the context of a regional or community hospital.
OBJECTIVES:At the completion of training, the residents
will have acquired the following competencies and will function
diagnostic and therapeutic skills for ethical and effective
and apply relevant information to clinical practice.
effective consultation services with respect to patient care,
education and legal opinions.
the completion of training, the residents will demonstrate the
diagnostic skills required for ethical and effective patient care and
will demonstrate effective consultation skills with respect to patient
care, education and legal opinions. The level of knowledge in all areas
will reflect the needs of community or regional laboratories. It is not
expected that the residents will have the same depth or breadth of
knowledge in the laboratory medicine specialties as residents trained in
a single discipline. From a functional standpoint the General Pathology
residents must be able to recognize and diagnose common morphological
and clinical entities. "Common" may be defined as likely to
occur one or more times in the course of a year in a laboratory medicine
population base of 50,000. The residents must appreciate those clinical
situations, cases or specimen types which will require referral to a
laboratory medicine specialist working in a tertiary hospital setting.
the general pathology residents must be familiar with and able to
characterize disease processes in a wide range of tissues they must
develop particular skills in diagnosing common entities in the realms of
dermatopathology, gynecological pathology, breast pathology, male
genitourinary pathology, lower urinary tract pathology, gastrointestinal
(including hepatobiliary and pancreatic) pathology, thyroid and
parathyroid pathology, respiratory tract pathology, autopsy pathology,
morphologic hematology (peripheral blood, lymph nodes, bone marrow
biopsies and spleen), and cytopathology (both fine needle and
exfoliative). The residents will recognize the type of case which,
because of tissue type, rarity, complexity, or therapeutic implications
will require referral to a tertiary centre. The residents will also
appreciate those cases where consultation with General Pathology
colleagues would be advisable.
The expected knowledge
base will include:
anatomy and its common variants with a basic understanding of
normal gross and light microscopic appearance of tissues both as
intact organs and biopsy material.
principles of tissue fixation and preparation of specimens for
normal appearance of tissue cells in common fixatives,
exfoliated or obtained by needle aspiration.
principles of cell biology, immunology, medical genetics and
pathogenic mechanisms with an understanding of changes seen in
principles of light microscopy including polarization, dark
field and fluorescence microscopy.
principles of specialized histology techniques including
histochemical, immunocytochemical, flow cytometry, morphometry,
and hybridization techniques and their application in diagnosis.
rules regarding retention of specimens and processed surgical
material as well as the retention of records.
rules governing consent for postmortem examination and the types
of cases which must be reported to the coroner or medical
definitions of cause, mechanism and manner of death.
sampling of tissues and fluids for the toxicological examination
and the legal requirements for the handling of these samples.
recognized standards of workplace safety and the rules governing
transportation of dangerous goods.
utilization of ancillary techniques such as biochemical,
microbiological, photographic, and radiological studies in
surgical and forensic pathology.
principles of quality assurance pertinent to surgical and
residents will develop and be able to demonstrate the following skills
by the conclusion of the residency program:
recognize and accurately diagnose a broad range of common
inflammatory and neoplastic conditions on both histological and
provide appropriate strategies for biopsy (histological and
cytological), tissue handling, and reporting to include the
features of prognostic and therapeutic importance.
describe appropriate handling, dissection, and sampling of those
tissues normally received for examination by regional or
community hospital laboratories.
be capable of offering a competent intraoperative consultation
(frozen section/ imprint/ cytological) with an understanding of
the appropriate use and limitations of these procedures.
obtain satisfactory photomicrographs and photographs of gross
perform a complete postmortem examination with appropriate
descriptions at the gross and microscopic levels and
incorporating all clinical information.
To be capable of undertaking a complete forensic autopsy in all
common situations excluding homicide. This will require knowledge
of relevant autopsy techniques and expected findings as well as of
the practical aspects of establishing time of death and
Biochemistry is the study and measurement of biochemical abnormalities
in human disease and forms a core component of the training program in
all specialties, but especially those that are technologically driven,
there is a rapid evolution to be expected in diagnostic test
methodology. In addition, as understanding of biochemical abnormalities
increases, there is a constant need to update and expand test menus in
order to provide rational and efficient strategies to confirm or exclude
disease. The increasing availability of new technologies is also
expected to blur the distinction between traditional clinical
disciplines, enhance the capabilities of community or regional hospital
laboratories, and increase the consultative role of the General
discipline of Medical Biochemistry as it pertains to General Pathology
involves the following major areas of activity:
supervision and direction of the clinical biochemistry
laboratory at the level of a community or regional hospital.
provision of consultation services to clinical colleagues with
respect to appropriate and effective biochemical testing
strategies and their interpretation.
completion of training, the residents will have a broad knowledge of
biochemical testing and laboratory instrumentation pertinent to
supervising a community or regional hospital laboratory and offering
consultative services to clinical colleagues. The residents must
understand the common disorders of, and test strategies pertinent to
water and electrolytes
function and digestive disease
disease and hypertension
porphyrin and bilirubin metabolism
function (especially thyroid, parathyroid, gonadal, pituitary,
genetic disorders of metabolism
more basic knowledge of pediatric and prenatal clinical biochemistry,
nutrition, cancer-associated biochemical abnormalities, therapeutic drug
monitoring, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology is required with special
emphasis on testing available in community or regional hospital
residents will demonstrate the following skills by the conclusion of the
a clinical scenario, will provide appropriate advice regarding
biochemical test selection with a view to optimizing laboratory
have a practical knowledge of statistics pertinent to clinical
biochemistry. This will include the concepts of sensitivity,
specificity, efficacy, precision, accuracy, incidence,
prevalence, predictive value, reference ranges, means, standard
deviation, variance, parametric and non-parametric distribution,
and the control of pre-analytical variables.
demonstrate knowledge of common analytical techniques and
instrumentation in the biochemical laboratory.
demonstrate an understanding of laboratory equipment selection.
define the components of a quality assurance program and
describe the methods of quality control and their application.
demonstrate an understanding of the principles of laboratory
safety and the regulations as they apply to workplace hazards
and transportation of dangerous goods.
define the basic components of a Laboratory information system
and its application to the modern biochemical laboratory.
Microbiology as applicable to General Pathology includes the following
major areas of activity:
supervision and direction of the clinical microbiological
laboratory at the level of the community or regional hospital.
direction of a hospital infection control program as it pertains
to the role and utilization of the hospital laboratory.
provision of consultative services to clinical colleagues
regarding appropriate microbiological investigations and their
General Pathologist may be expected to assume some of the
responsibilities of an infectious disease consultant depending on the
availability of such resources and an understanding of common
antimicrobial agents and their appropriate use if required.
organisms for which a working knowledge is required are those that are
normally isolated or otherwise identified in a regional hospital
staphylococci, streptococci, Corynebacteriae (including
other aerobic and facultative gram-positive rods), Clostridia, Neisseriae
(including moraxella), Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter,
Pseudomonas (and other common gram negative opportunistic
bacilli), Hemophilus, Bordatellae, Legionellae,
Chlamydiae, Mycoplasmae, and common pathogenic
Candida, Aspergillus, Histoplasma, Coccidioides,
Blastomyces, Cryptococcus, Mucor, and Pneumocystis.
Malaria, ehrlichia, common helminthic infections (cestodes, Enterobius,
Strongyloides, Ascaris), Giardia, Schistosomes,
Cryptosporidia, Microsporidia, Entamoeba, Dientamoeba,
blastocystis, echinococcus, Trichinella.
less common bacterial, fungal, and parasitic organisms there should be a
general understanding of testing strategies, specimen collection and
handling, laboratory safety, and interpretation of diagnostic reports.
basic knowledge of viral classification and identification techniques is
required with particular emphasis on public health and hospital
infection control implications.
residents must know the common bacterial toxins, associated disease
implications, and toxin identification techniques.
infection control must be understood in some depth including prevention
and control of infection and epidemics, disinfection and sterilization
procedures, appropriate handling and disposal of infectious materials,
employee health and laboratory safety issues, and pertinent public
residents must know the common quality control procedures applicable to
residents at end of training must be able to demonstrate the following
practical knowledge of all common bench-level test methods
including manual, semi-automated and automated systems.
ability to prepare and interpret Gram, Ziehl-Neelsen and special
stains for fungi and parasites.
ability to interpret fluorescence microscopy.
ability to recognize the diagnostic features of common bacterial
species on differential media, including common fermentation
ability to interpret culture data from non-sterile body sites,
presuming knowledge of the common components of normal flora.
ability to describe the common etiological pathogens of
infectious disease by disease process and body site.
ability to recognize common fungal and parasitic organisms in
human tissue and to utilize serologic and culture investigations
ability to utilize and interpret serological investigations for
the diagnosis of bacterial and viral diseases.
working knowledge of the newer molecular diagnostic
methodologies and their use in microbiological diagnosis and
ability to analyze and interpret antimicrobial sensitivity data
and to describe specific techniques for assessing antimicrobial
ability to interpret quality control data applicable to Medical
Hematopathology and Transfusion Medicine
level of expertise in hematology must reflect the knowledge base
required in a regional or community hospital. The discipline as
applicable to General Pathology includes the following major areas of
supervision and clinical direction of a hematopathology
laboratory as organized at the level of a regional or community
supervision and clinical direction of a transfusion service in
association with provincial and national blood agencies.
morphological assessment and diagnosis of blood, bone marrow and
lymph node based disorders with utilization of newer
technologies as appropriate.
provision of consultation services with regard to appropriate
and effective hematological investigation.
provision of consultation services regarding appropriate use of,
and possible alternatives to, blood component therapy.
General Pathology residents must have a basic knowledge of the
hematopoiesis and cell biology as it pertains to the structure
and function of all hematopoietic elements.
structure and functional relationships of all components of the
components of humoral and cellular immunity, the role of
complement and its pathways of activation.
components and functional relationship of the hemostatic and
fibrinolytic systems including control mechanisms.
including major blood group systems and the role of the human
leukocyte antigen (HLA) system.
as applicable to blood disorders.
knowledge base is required as a framework for understanding disorders of
hematopoiesis and coagulation and to successfully resolve problems of
blood component therapy.
knowledge base of hematopathological disorders must include the
anemias including diagnostic strategies, morphological findings
at the peripheral blood and bone marrow level, clinical
associations, complications, and basic principles of management.
causes of polycythemia including diagnostic strategies,
morphological features, clinical associations, complications,
and basic principles of management.
non-neoplastic disorders of leukocytes including reactive,
congenital and drug-related abnormalities.
neoplastic disorders of leukocytes including diagnostic
strategies, common classification schemes and the role of
cytogenetics, stem cell studies, and flow cytometry.
categories of lymphoma including common diagnostic strategies,
morphological features, ancillary investigations, and prognostic
disorders of thrombocytes including diagnostic strategies,
clinical associations and principles of management.
disorders of coagulation, congenital and acquired, including
strategies for investigation, clinical associations and
principles of management.
problems of blood banking including incompatible cross-match,
auto- and alloimmune antibodies and their differentiation,
neonatal blood banking issues, types and investigation of
adverse reactions to blood component therapy and the appropriate
use of blood components in the treatment of hematological and
the end of training, the residents will have developed skills in the
level tests available in a community or regional hospital
hematology laboratory. This will include manual, semi-automated,
and automated tests in addition to the basic principles of test
methodology and instrumentation.
blood film and bone marrow/lymph node biopsy interpretation.
This must include all abnormalities likely to be encountered in
a community/regional hospital laboratory practice.
regarding appropriate use of newer diagnostic methodologies for
test strategies to diagnose common disorders of hematopoesis and
level testing in the blood bank and recognition of standards as
they apply to the testing and release of blood products.
transfusion orders in relation to appropriateness, risks of
blood product transfusion, and alternatives to transfusion.
Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) issues and
laboratory safety practices.
in bone marrow aspiration and biopsy technique should be
therapeutic relationships with patients/families.
and synthesize relevant history from
appropriate information with patients/families and the health care
Laboratory physicians, as active members of the health delivery team,
will establish appropriate relationships with consulting physicians and
surgeons. From time to time, especially in the clinical disciplines, the
pathologist may find it helpful, in the best interests of patient care,
to communicate directly with patients, families, and other health care
providers. In this regard the residents must demonstrate skills in
communicating, both in verbal and written form, in a manner appropriate
to the intended recipient.
residents must understand effective clinical history taking and must
have a broad knowledge of the laboratory basis of diagnosis in order to
appropriately advise regarding test strategies and interpretation.
Effective communication with clinical colleagues is essential in order
to interpret surgical and autopsy pathology findings in the clinical
context. The residents must be able to formulate comprehensive and
clinically meaningful surgical pathology reports and organize diagnostic
summaries to prioritize the features of importance. Diagnostic
uncertainty must be clearly expressed with appropriate differential
diagnoses and suggestions regarding further studies or ancillary
investigations. There must be an awareness of ethical and medico-legal
issues regarding the release and dissemination of confidential patient
information. The residents must demonstrate awareness of the importance
of timeliness, clarity and accuracy in all verbal and written
effectively with other physicians and health care professionals.
effectively to other interdisciplinary team activities.
The residents must be aware of the strong interface between the
laboratory and clinical disciplines. The residents must also develop
skills in supporting educational and/or research endeavours of clinical
and laboratory colleagues through individual opportunities or group
the realm of surgical pathology the residents must be aware of, and
respond appropriately to, situations in which the laboratory will
significantly affect critical patient management decisions. Such
situations will include intraoperative consultations, assessment of
surgical margins, staging procedures, situations where deferral of
diagnosis is recommended, and situations where ancillary investigations
or consultation is required for optimal case management. In the clinical
disciplines the residents will be able to assist in optimal laboratory
utilization appreciating the diagnostic limitations of laboratory tests
and the importance of control of pre-analytic variables. The residents
will understand the clinical requirements for turnaround time in
specimen reporting, the range of testing which should be continuously
available in the community/regional hospital and the appropriate
laboratory response to critical values.
residents must understand the value of interdisciplinary and
intradisciplinary collaboration in patient management decisions. This
includes the need for case review including review by external
institutions and agencies. The residents must demonstrate a willingness
to seek consultation opinions if so requested by clinical colleagues
with modification of subsequent diagnostic impressions if appropriate.
resources effectively to balance patient care, learning needs, and
finite health care resources wisely.
effectively and efficiently in a health care organization.
Utilize information technology to optimize patient care, life-long
learning and other activities.
At the end of training, the residents will understand the basic
principles of laboratory management.
the residents will have some knowledge of:
and personnel management.
(personnel, materials, capital equipment)
structures for laboratories.
medical staff organization and roles.
control, quality assurance and continuous quality improvement.
safety and the transportation of dangerous goods.
of optimal laboratory utilization.
purchasing and selection.
legislation and/or regulations governing the operation of
laboratories, including issues of informed consent.
legislation and/or regulations governing laboratory operation and
information systems and components (hardware and software).
is expected that management issues pertinent to the laboratory will be
taught as part of the academic activities of the residency-training
program and may be supplemented with specific research activities.
the important determinants of health affecting patients.
effectively to improved health of patients and communities.
and respond to those issues where advocacy is appropriate.
part of an interdisciplinary team of professionals responsible for
patient and community health care, the residents will understand those
components of the laboratory and its services that are required to:
Respond adequately to community, and hospital service demands
including the need for population screening.
Respond to hospital, community and regional public health needs
to detect and control infectious disease.
Provide sufficient and safe blood bank resources.
residents will demonstrate the ability to recognize and respond to
situations where health advocacy and application of health care
resources is required. This will include the introduction of improved
instrumentation and methodologies to augment community health care.
implement and monitor a personal continuing education strategy.
appraise sources of medical information.
learning of patients, housestaff/students and other health
to development of new knowledge.
the training period, the residents will demonstrate an ability to
develop and implement a strategy for learning including a program of
continuing education following completion of the residency. There must
be a working knowledge of statistics applicable to all aspects of
laboratory medicine and the capability of appraising sources of medical
information. An important aspect of the role of the general pathologist
is the continuing education of laboratory technologists and clinical
medicine colleagues. An ability to perform this educational role must be
developed by the senior residency years.
towards new knowledge is a major role of academic laboratory medicine
specialists and the General Pathology residents must also be familiar
with research methodology. In this regard the residents should have
undertaken at least one research project during the 5-year program and
must be familiar with the principles of critical appraisal.
highest quality care with integrity, honesty and compassion.
appropriate personal and interpersonal professional behaviours.
medicine ethically consistent with obligations of a physician.
The residents must develop a broad understanding of the role of the
physician within the community and hospital structure. The residents
must establish a high standard of laboratory medical practice,
appreciating personal limitations in diagnostic skill which will require
referral of particular types of case in the best interests of patient
care. The residents will demonstrate integrity, honesty and compassion
in all aspects of the practice of laboratory medicine as well as
personal and interpersonal professional behaviours of a high ethical
standard. These behaviours will include those relating to
confidentiality, respect for others, conflict of interest, codes of
conduct, personal and professional boundaries, consent, and the role of
professional self-regulation and continuing education.
AND ORGANIZATION OF THE RESIDENCY PROGRAM:
must be an organized program of rotations and other educational
experiences, both mandatory and elective, designed to provide each
resident with the opportunity to fulfill the educational requirements
and achieve competence in the specialty.
The content and
organization of each accredited program in general pathology must be
consistent with the specialty training requirements.
In addition to
offering the components noted in the specialty training requirements all
accredited programs in general pathology must offer community-based
The resident must
be provided with a graduated increase in individual professional
responsibility, under appropriate supervision, appropriate to the level
of competence and experience.
must be sufficient resources including teaching faculty, the number and
variety of patients, physical and technical resources, as well as the
supporting facilities and services necessary to provide the opportunity
for all residents in the program to achieve the educational objectives
and receive full training as defined by the specialty training
requirements in general pathology.
In those cases
where a university has sufficient resources to provide most of the
training in general pathology but lacks one or more essential elements,
the program may still be accredited provided that formal arrangements
have been made to send residents to another accredited residency program
for periods of appropriate prescribed training.
environments must include experiences that facilitate the acquisition of
knowledge, skills, and attitudes relating to aspects of age, gender,
culture, and ethnicity appropriate to general pathology.
must be a sufficient number of qualified teaching staff to
supervise residents and provide teaching in the basic and
clinical sciences related to laboratory medicine.
should be ongoing exposure to general pathologists, initiated at
the commencement of training, who can serve as role models
during the formative years of the general pathologist's
training. Professional staffing (pathologists, pathology
assistants, technologists and other personnel), should be
sufficient that service work and academic endeavors and roles of
the department can be achieved whether or not residents are
present in the department.
and Variety of Pathological Material
there are no specified minimum numbers of autopsies,
surgical/cytology specimens, or forensic work, the volume and
diversity of work available for teaching must be adequate to
attain the educational objectives of the program. Material
provided in the clinical disciplines must also be of sufficient
variety to fulfill the stated training objectives.
program must provide an opportunity for the resident to acquire
a level of competence in the practice of laboratory medicine
appropriate to direct laboratories in community hospital or
free-standing laboratories with the capability of recognizing
those instances where material and/or cases should be referred.
Components of the Program
laboratory program must provide adequate resources to ensure
satisfaction of the training objectives in individual domains
encompassed by laboratory medicine. It is important for the
general pathology resident to understand the statistical and
analytical bases of laboratory testing, test interpretation, and
general pathology must include:
must be adequate numbers of autopsies available to provide full
training in gross autopsy techniques, histotechniques,
photographic, and postmortem microbiological techniques.
Instruction in postmortem prosection must be provided under the
direction of staff pathologists.
of Pathology must ensure prompt resident interpretation and
reporting of autopsy findings including clinico-pathological
correlation. Completed autopsy protocols should be in the
patient's medical record within three months after the date of
must be an adequate volume and range of surgically excised
tissues to provide training in the gross examination,
dissection, and selection of appropriate tissue blocks for
histological study. Experience in biopsy and frozen section
interpretation is essential. Experience in the range of
histological diagnoses within the range of tissues sent for
study in community hospital or free-standing laboratories is
must be an adequate volume and mix of cytologic specimens and
facilities available for training in cytology, including
aspiration cytology and exfoliative cytology.
must obtain experience in the special procedures which may be
associated with medicolegal autopsies. If necessary to provide
such experience, rotations or other arrangements must be
available to residents at an appropriate forensic centre or
laboratory. A well structured program, one month at least, must
and Special Methods
addition to adequate facilities and equipment for routine
fixation and staining of tissues, there must be adequate
opportunity to develop knowledge of the applications of special
staining procedures. Competence in the operation of the light
microscope must be assured, including the applications of
polarizing optics and fluorescent microscopy.
must acquire a basic knowledge of the principles and techniques
of morphometry, molecular pathology, and flow cytometry, and
must be adequate experience in the following areas of
hematopathology: morphology, immunohematology, blood banking,
hemostasis and anticoagulation. Emphasis should be placed on the
interpretation of laboratory results.
must be adequate experience in the following areas of medical
biochemistry: test ordering and patient preparation,
methodology, quality control, interpretation of biochemical
must be adequate experience in the following areas of medical
microbiology: bacteriology, antimicrobial sensitivity testing,
parasitology, mycology, virology, and infection control.
areas common to more than one of the above domains
include the following:
genetics and principles of cytogenetic analysis.
pathology which must be supported by an adequate
volume and variety of teaching material and
administration; instruction and experience in managing
of laboratories of secondary care facilities must be
management and data processing applicable to
resident must have ongoing opportunity to act as a consultant to
clinical colleagues on the interpretation and clinical relevance
of laboratory findings.
experiences must be available which provide a learning
environment with appropriate supervision based on rotation
specific objectives. This assumes administrative support and
linkages with the program.
to laboratories in smaller community hospitals and free-standing
laboratories should be an integral part of the program. The
program must include training in facilities with laboratory
physicians practising general pathology.
Services — Clinical, Diagnostic, Technical
programs in other disciplines of laboratory medicine are
beneficial but not essential for an adequate general pathology
program. The integration of general pathology residency with
other active teaching services in general surgery, internal
medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology and psychiatry,
through the attendance at rounds and interaction with residents
and staff in these other disciplines is to be encouraged.
Integration of the general pathology program with the family
medicine program is also advantageous.
AND SCHOLARLY ASPECTS OF THE PROGRAM:
The academic and
scholarly aspects of the program must be commensurate with the
concept of a university postgraduate education. The quality of
scholarship in the program will in part, be demonstrated by a
spirit of enquiry during clinical discussions, rounds, and
conferences. Scholarship implies an in-depth understanding of
basic mechanisms of normal and abnormal states and the
application of current knowledge to practice.
scholarly activities such as journal clubs, research conferences
and seminars must be a regular part of the program. Provision of
rounds in each of the specialty areas on a regular basis should
be an integral part of the program and residents should be
encouraged to attend clinical conferences provided by clinical
departments, and if possible, participate in presenting the
and Clinical Sciences Relevant to General Pathology
academic program must include organized teaching in the basic
and clinical sciences relevant to the specialty.
academic program must ensure that residents gain an
understanding of the basic principles and practice of biomedical
ethics as it relates to general pathology.
program must ensure that residents learn effective communication
skills for interacting with colleagues, co-workers from other
disciplines and students. Clearly defined educational objectives
for teaching these skills and mechanisms of formal assessment
should be in place.
must be given opportunities to develop effective skills in
collaborating with all members of the patient care team.
must be given opportunities to develop effective teaching skills
by teaching junior colleagues and students, as well as through
conference presentations, clinical and scientific reports, and
must be given opportunities to develop skills in management as
applied to general pathology. Residents should also be prepared
for their role as a health care advocate.
program must provide residents with opportunities to gain an
understanding of the principles and practice of quality
assurance monitoring as it applies to the appropriate
utilization of the laboratory and specifically quality control
programs applicable to each area of the laboratory. General
pathology residents must participate in quality assurance
programs in both the laboratory and in the hospital setting.
Opportunities for Residents
must be a faculty member with the responsibility to facilitate
the involvement of residents in research and other scholarly
work. The academic program must provide the opportunity for
residents to learn biostatistics and the critical appraisal of
research methodology and medical literature. Such teaching must
include issues related to age, gender, culture, and ethnicity in
research protocols and data presentation and discussion. The
resident should be encouraged to participate in research
programs in the departments to which he or she is assigned.
Participation in a research program with the publication of
papers or presentation or research findings at medical meetings
is to be encouraged.
satisfactory level of research and scholarly activity must be
maintained among the faculty identified with the program.
programs must promote development of skills in self-assessment
and self-directed life-long learning. To promote this end, the
program should provide opportunities for residents to attend
conferences outside their own university.